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Acid Rain : The acidic rainfall which results when rain combines with sulfur oxides emissions from combustion of fossil fuels.

Acre-foot : The amount of water required to cover one acre to a depth of one foot. An acre-foot equals 325,851 gallons, or 43,560 cubic feet. A flow of 1 cubic foot per second produce 1.98 acre-feet per day.

Aggressive Water : Water which is soft and acidic and can corrode plumbing, piping, and appliances.

Algae : Green, black or brown microscopic plant life which is nourished by sunlight.

Algicide : A chemical or process for killing algae. An algistat is an agent for preventing their growth.

Alkalinity : The measurement of constituents in a water supply which determine alkaline conditions. The alkalinity of water is a measure of its capacity to neutralize acids. (See ph.)

Alum : A flocculating agent. Potassium and ammonium alum are the most common types used in the treatment of pool water. Aluminum sulphate is often used with gravity sand filters.

Anti-vortex Plate : A device used typically in conjunction with a sump that causes water to flow horizontally before entering or exiting the sump. This reduces the whirlpool effect or vortex on the surface of the water.

Aquatic : Growing in, living in, or frequenting water.

Artesian Well : A water well drilled into a confined aquifer where enough hydraulic pressure exists for the water to flow to the surface without pumping.

Artesian Zone : A zone where water is confined in an aquifer under pressure so that the water will rise in the well casing or drilled hole above the bottom of the confining layer overlying the aquifer.

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Backflow Preventer : A device used to prevent contaminated water from the being introduced into the main incoming water source.

Backwashing : Reversing the flow of water through a home treatment device filter or membrane to clean and remove deposits.

Ballast : The means of introducing additional water into a fountain system in order to create or divert the flow of water. This is typically used for weir applications, but may be used in conjunction with a wind compensation system.

Barrage : Any artificial obstruction placed in water to increase water level or divert it. Usually the idea is to control peak flow for later release.

Blowdown : The ability to clean the bottom of the fountain by means of multiple incoming water sources.

Bromine : A chemical treatment typically used with an automatic feeder that reduces the amount algae growth within the fountain. Pros: does not have the smell of chlorine and erodes copper and brass at a slower rate than that of chlorine. Cons: more expensive and is quickly countered by sunlight. Bromine itself has a ph level of 3.5-4.5.

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Calcium Carbonate (CaCo3) : A white precipitate that forms in water lines, water heaters and boilers in hard water areas; also known as scale.

Cart-pak : A portable filtration assembly that allows maintenance personnel the ability to move to various locations of the fountain for cleaning. The cart-pak contains a pump, cartridge style filter and vacuum hoses.

Chemical Feeder : Any device to feed chemicals, but usually one feeding alum, acid, filter aid, algaecide or soda ash. Included in this category are proportioning pumps, injector type feeders, pot type feeders, operating from a pressure differential and dry type feeders.

Cartridge Filter : A device that uses a paper style media to filter water. Pros: compact size, filters out very small particles. Cons: no automatic backwashing, can become dirty quickly.

Certificate of Water Right : An official document which serves as court evidence of a perfected water right.

Chemical Weathering : Attacking and dissolving of parent rock by exposure to rainwater, surface water, oxygen, other gases in the atmosphere, and compounds secreted by organisms.

Chlorination : The adding of chlorine to water for the purpose of disinfection or other biological or chemical results.

Chlorine : A chemical used to treat fountain water for algae and other bacteria. Pros: less expensive than bromine. Has a natural ph level of 7.0. Cons: very corrosive to copper and brass components. Has a strong odor.

Chute Spillway : The overall structure which allows water to drop rapidly through an open channel without causing erosion. Usually constructed near the edge of dams.

Circulate : To move in a circle, circuit or orbit; to flow without obstruction; to follow a course that returns to the starting point.

Climatic Cycle : The periodic changes climate displays, such as a series of dry years following a series of years with heavy rainfall.

Climatic Year : A period used in meteorological measurements. The climatic year in the U.S. begins on October 1.

Climate : Generalized weather at a given place on earth over a fairly long period; a long term average of weather.

Conduit : Piping or tubing used to house electrical power or control wires.

Conservation : To protect from loss and waste. Conservation of water may mean to save or store water for later use.

Contact Recreation : Activities involving a significant risk of ingestion of water, such as wading by children, swimming, water skiing, diving and surfing.

Contamination : The introduction into water of sewage or other foreign matter that will render the water unfit for its intended use.

Cooling Tower Effect : Created when water is emitted into the air by means of a spray effect. Generally this can crate a cooler temperature around this location up to 20 degrees temperature difference.

Cord Seal : A compression fitting used to create a watertight seal around a cord or cable. Typically used on light fixtures and submersible pumps.

Corrosion : The etching or oxidation of a material by chemical action.

Corrosion Resistant Material : A material with exceptional resistance to the corrosion factors to which it is subjected.

Critical Low Flow : Low flow conditions below which some standards do not apply. The impacts of permitted discharges are analyzed at critical low-flow.

Cubic Foot per Second (CFS) : The rate of discharge representing a volume of one cubic foot passing a given point during 1 second. This rate is equivalent to approximately 7.48 gallons per second, or 1.98 acre-feet per day.

Current : The portion of a stream or body of water which is moving with a velocity much greater than the average of the rest of the water. The progress of the water is principally concentrated in the current.

Cyanuric Acid : A chemical used for chlorine stabilization.

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Deck Box : Any junction box that is mounted within the slab of a fountain or planter. This box is mounted flush with the finished floor of the pool or at grade level in a planter application. This fixture is typically used for niche mounted underwater lighting.

Deposit : Something dropped or left behind by moving water, as sand or mud.

Design Operation Statement : A brief but thorough description of what the result appearance of the fountain is to be. This includes description of water effects, pool sizes, shapes, number of pools and elevations, equipment room or pump station location, and any specialty features required or requested.

Diatomaceous Earth Filter : A filter that utilizes a thin layer of diatomaceous earth as its filter medium that periodically must be replaced.

Discharge : The volume of water that passes a given point within a given period of time.

Discharge Manifold : A piping discharge component created with one or more outlets to direct varying amounts of water to various areas of the water feature.

Drain Fitting : A component used to allow the fountain to be drained. Generally constructed of brass or stainless with a removable plug. See also pool to pool drain.

Drought : Periods of less than average precipitation over a certain period of time.

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Effluent : The outflow of water from a filter or other device.

Electrolysis : Decomposition of metal due to flow of electrical current.

Environment : Aggregate of external conditions that influence the life of an individual organism or population.

Equalization : The process of connecting two separate pools together at the same elevation for the purpose of combining multiple systems.

Equipment Room : An enclosed space or room available for the placement of the fountain pumping and filtration equipment. Ventilation is required. See also ventilation.

Erosion : The wearing away of the land surface by wind, water, ice or other geologic agents. Erosion occurs naturally from weather or runoff but is often intensified by human land use practices.

Evaporation : The change by which any substance is converted from a liquid state and carried of as vapor.

Eyeball Fitting : A small fitting located either in the pool wall or floor which directs water into the fountain. Typically used for filter water return applications.

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Feet of Head : A basis for indicating the resistance in a hydraulic system, equivalent to the height of a column of water that would cause the same resistance (100 feet of head equals 43 pounds per square inch). The total head is the sum of all resistances in a complete operating system. The principal factors affecting a head are vertical distances and the resistance caused by friction between the fluid and the pipe walls.

Field Capacity : The amount of water held in soil against the pull of gravity.

Filter : A device used to remove debris from the fountain water. See also cartridge filter and sand filter.

Filter Element : A device within a filter tank designed to entrap solids and conduct water to a manifold, collection header, pipe or similar conduit.

Filter, Gravity-Sand : A filter with a layer of filter media (usually silica sand) supported on graded gravel through which water flows by gravity.

Filter Media : The finely graded material which entraps suspended particles (Sand, anthracite, diatomaceous earth, etc.)

Filtration : The mechanical process which removes particulate matter by separating water from solid material, usually by passing it through cartridge style media or sand.

Fixed Ground Water : Water held in saturated material that it is not available as a source of water for pumping.

Floodplain : Land next to a river that becomes covered by water when the river overflows its banks.

Flow : The rate of water discharged from a source expressed in volume with respect to time.

Flow Augmentation : The addition of water to meet flow needs. See also ballast water.

Freezing : The change of a liquid into a solid as temperature decreases. For water, the freezing point is 32° f or 0° c.

Fresh Water : Water containing less than 1,000 parts per million (ppm) of dissolved solids of any type.

Freeze Protection : A device which will automatically turn on the fountain lights or leave a pump running if the temperature reaches a specific range. Generally between 25-32 degrees fahrenheit.

Frost : A covering of minute ice crystals on a cold surface.

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Gallon : A unit of volume. A u.s. gallon contains 231 cubic inches, 0.133 cubic feet, or 3.785 liters. One u.s. gallon of water weighs 8.3 lbs.

Galvanic Action : Creation of an electrical current by electrochemical action.

Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) : A gfci is an electrical device that is installed to prevent electrical shock to the users of electrical appliances, in areas where water or moisture is normally present.

GPM : Gallons per minute.

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Hard Water : Water containing a high level of calcium, magnesium, and other minerals.

Hardness (water) : Condition caused by dissolved salts of calcium, magnesium, and iron, such as bicarbonates, carbonates, sulfates, chlorides,and nitrates.

Head : The pressure of a fluid owing to its elevation, usually expressed in feet of head or in pounds per square inch, since a measure of fluid pressure is the height of a fluid column above a given or known point.

Hydrostatic Head : A measure of pressure at a given point in a liquid in terms of the vertical height of a column of the same liquid which would produce the same pressure.

Hydrostatic Pressure : Pressure exerted by or existing within a liquid at rest with respect to adjacent bodies.

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Ice : A solid form of water.

Impeller : The rotating vanes of a centrifugal pump.

Impermeable : Material that does not permit fluids to pass through.

Incoming Water : A water source to fill the fountain usually directed towards the fill manifold in the equipment room or a mechanical water level device in the fountain.

Instream Use : Use of water that does not require withdrawal or diversion from its natural watercourse; for example, the use of water for navigation, recreation, and support of fish and wildlife.

Intermittent Stream : One that flows periodically.

Ionization : Commercial ionization units typically consist of a micro processor control box and a set of electrodes composed of copper and silver that are set slightly apart from one another in a cartridge at the site of the pool filter. The control box generates a precise low voltage dc current at that travels between the electrodes and produces positively charged ions. Furthermore the water leaving the filter carries some of the ions into the pool, where the ions continue to kill bacteria, viruses, algae and fungi. The design of the control box varies by manufacturer and the installation depends on the type of pool.

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Jet : Any component creating a release of water into the fountain.

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Lake : An inland body of water, usually fresh water, formed by glaciers, river drainage etc. Usually larger than a pool or pond.

Landscape Impoundment : Body of reclaimed water which is used for aesthetic enjoyment or which otherwise serves a function not intended to include contact recreation.

Light : Any form of additional illumination used to bring aesthetic enhancement to the fountain.

Limestone : Rock that consists mainly of calcium carbonate and is chiefly formed by accumulation of organic remains.

Liner : The membrane that acts as a container for the water.

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Make-up Water : Fresh water used to fill or refill the pool, spa or hot tub.

Mechanical Room/Space : Any location given to provide placement for the fountain equipment. See also equipment room or pump station.

Muriatic Acid : A commercial name for hydrochloric acid. Used for lowering the ph and alkalinity of pool water.

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Niche Mounted : Any component mounted or recessed within the fountain floor or walls.

Nitrogen : A plant nutrient that can cause an overabundance of bacteria and algae when high amounts are present, leading to a depletion of oxygen and fish kills. Several forms occur in water, including ammonia, nitrate, nitrite or elemental nitrogen. High levels of nitrogen in water are usually caused by agricultural runoff.

Nonporous : Something which does not allow water to pass through it.

Nonpotable : Not suitable for drinking.

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Operation and Maintenance Manual : Complete instructions on how to properly operate and maintain the fountain system. This should also include a listing of all the major equipment items and any replacement parts.

Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) : The capability of a substance to either release or gain free electrons.

Orp Controller : A microprocessor controlled sensor that automatically monitors and controls the ph level of a fountain by injecting liquid chemicals into the fountain.

Overflow : A device either niche mounted or freestanding which allows the removal of any excess water from the fountain.

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Ph : Numeric value that describes the intensity of the acid or basic (alkaline) conditions of a solution. The ph scale is from 0 to 14, with the neutral point at 7.0. Values lower than 7 indicate the presence of acids and greater than 7.0 the presence of alkalis (bases). Technically speaking, ph is the logarithm of the reciprocal (negative log) of the hydrogen ion concentration (hydrogen ion activity) in moles per liter.

Photocell : A device used to automatically turn on the fountain underwater lighting during the evening hours.

Pool Heater : A device through which pool water is circulated to increase the temperature of the water. In the direct type, the heat is transferred directly to the pool water circulating tubes. The indirect type utilizes a separate enclosed system which is directly exposed to heat generator and which heats the pool water by circulating the steam or hot water around the tubes of a heat exchanger through which the water circulates. The heat generator is considered part of every heater.

Pond : A body of water usually smaller than a lake and larger than a pool either naturally or artificially confined.

Porous : Something which allows water to pass through it.

Post Tension Slab : Post-tensioned concrete involves the application of tension to a tendon cast in hardened concrete, then anchoring the stretched tendon at the member ends, producing compressive stress in concrete which improves the response of a member or structure to loading.

Potable : Suitable, safe, or prepared for drinking.

Potting Compound : Two-part resin that creates a water tight seal within a junction box.

PPM (Parts per Million) : Number of parts of a chemical found in one million parts of a solid, liquid, or gaseous mixture.

Pressure Differential : The difference is pressure between two parts of a hydraulic system (influent and effluent of a filter, suction and discharge of a pump, the up and downstream sides of a venture or orifice).

Pump : A device which moves, compresses, or alters the pressure of a fluid, such as water or air, being conveyed through piping, natural or artificial channel. See also submersible pump.

Pump Pad : An elevated pad which houses all of the necessary mechanical equipment.

Pump Station : A prefabricated underground room which houses all of the necessary mechanical equipment to operate the fountain.

Pump Strainer : A device, placed on the suction side of a pump, which contains a removable strainer basket designed to trap debris in the waterflow with a minimum of flow restriction (sometimes referred to in the past as a "hair and lint trap").

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Recirculation : The ability to recycle fountain water from the lowest source and return it to the highest pool or spray effect without substantial loss to the primary water source.

Reservoir : A pond, lake, tank, or basin (natural or human made) where water is collected and used for storage. Large bodies of groundwater are called groundwater reservoirs; water behind a dam is also called a reservoir of water.

River : A natural stream of water of considerable volume.

River Basin : The area drained by a river and its tributaries.

Runoff : Surface water entering rivers, freshwater lakes, or reservoirs.

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Sand Filter : A device which uses sand as a filtering media. Pros: can be used with an automatic backwash system for periodic cleaning. Cons: bulky, degree of filtration is less than a cartridge style.

Sanitary Sewer : See separate sewer.

Saturation : The condition of a liquid when it has taken into solution the maximum possible quantity of a given substance at a given temperature and pressure.

Sediment : Soil particles, sand, or any debris on the floor of the fountain.

Separate Sewer : A sewer system that carries only sanitary sewage, not storm water runoff. The fountain drain or overflow water may need to be directed to this location. See all local codes. See also storm sewer.

Shutdown Gain : The elevation change in the lowest fountain pool water level when the fountain is shut down. This does not apply in a single level pool application.

Skimmer : A device that removes surface debris from the fountain. This unit contains a removable basket that can be cleaned periodically.

Slab Penetration : A component enabling the connection of an inlet of water, a spray effect or a drain. This penetration is embedded in the floor or wall of the fountain and is typically constructed of pvc, brass or stainless.

Soil Erosion : The processes by which soil is removed from one place by forces such as wind, water, waves, glaciers, and construction activity and eventually deposited at some new place.

Spillway : The channel or passageway around or over a dam through which excess water is diverted.

Spray Effect : A device which creates an aesthetic action or enhancement of water for a fountain.

Spring : An issue of water from the earth; a natural fountain; a source of a body or reservoir of water.

Storm Sewer : The means to drain any water resulting from rain or other precipitation. The fountain drain water may be directed to this location. See local codes.

Stream : A general term for a body of flowing water.

Streamflow : The discharge that occurs in a natural channel.

Submersible Pump : A pump that operates fully submerged in the water.

Sump : A device used to remove or replace water for either a suction or a ballast application.

Surface Water : Water that flows in streams and rivers and in natural lakes, in wetlands, and in reservoirs constructed by humans.

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Thermal Gradient : Temperature difference between two areas.

Time Clock : A device (mechanical or electrical) which controls the operating schedule of the pumping system lighting system or both.

Tributary : A stream that contributes its water to another stream or body of water.

Turnover : The period of time (usually in hours) required to circulate a volume of water equal to the pool, spa or hot tub capacity.

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USGS : United states geological survey.

Ultraviolet Light (UV) : Ultra violet (uv) light represents a section of the overall electromagnetic spectrum of light, extending from the blue end of the visible (400nm) to the x-ray region (100nm).

UV filtration : As ultraviolet light rays pass through water, microorganisms are exposed to the uv rays. As a result, their nucleic acid absorbs the light rays, which then scrambles the dna structure and prohibits reproduction of the cell therefore rendering the cell sterile which can no longer reproduce. The cell is now consider dead and is no longer a threat to water consumption.

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Vacuum Fitting : A component located in either the pool floor or wall which a maintenance person can attach a hose and clean the pool floor by filtering the water through the filter system.

Velocity : The measurement of the motion of liquids, expressed in feet per second.

Ventilation : An open air source into the equipment room or pump station. When sizes, please note that the turnover rate for the volume of air in the room should be 3-5 minutes.

Vortex : A circular motion on the surface of the water typically over a suction component. This is generated when the flow of water into the suction component is to fast. See also anti-vortex plate.

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Wastewater : Water containing waste including greywater, blackwater or water contaminated by waste contact, including process-generated and contaminated rainfall runoff.

Water : The liquid that descends from the clouds as rain; forms streams, lakes, and seas, and is a major constituent of all living matter. It is an odorless, tasteless, colorless, very slightly compressible liquid.

Waterproofing : A fluid applied membrane that creates a waterproof barrier between the fountain water and the concrete or precast shell.

Water Level Sensor : A device mechanical or electrical that maintains an operating water depth within the fountain.

Water Pollution : Degradation of a body of water by a substance or condition to such a degree that the water fails to meet specified standards or cannot be used for a specific purpose.

Water Table : Level below the earth’s surface at which the ground becomes saturated with water. The surface of an unconfined aquifer which fluctuates due to seasonal precipitation.

Water Well : Any artificial excavation constructed for the purpose of exploring for or producing ground water.

Waterfall : A sudden, nearly vertical drop in a stream, as it flows over rock.

Weather : Day to day variation in atmospheric conditions.

Weir : Any edge in a fountain that water may flow over and drop in elevation.

Weir Depth : The thickness of water flowing over an edge. Generally measured per foot of weir edge.

Wetland : Area that is regularly wet or flooded and has a water table that stands at or above the land surface for at least part of the year.

Wind Compensation : A device used to reduce the height of a spray effect and/or shut the fountain in the event of a high wind condition. This unit will then re-energize the system once wind conditions have returned to normal.

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X-ray : Typically done in application where a post tension slab has been used. X-raying will determine if where the embedded wire is for coring applications.

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Yield : The quantity of water expressed either as a continuous rate of flow (cubic feet per second, etc.) Or as a volume per unit of time. It can be collected for a given use, or uses, from surface or groundwater sources on a watershed.

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Zone of Saturation : The space below the water table in which all the interstices (pore spaces) are filled with water. Water in the zone of saturation is called groundwater.

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